TRIUMVIRATE: a word meaning composed of three, applied the Romans to an office filled by three men. Officials belonging to the triumvirate were called triumvirs, and their duties were to jointly execute the obligations incumbent upon these officers. The two great coalitions formed of the three most powerful individuals in the The Roman Empire included the triumvirate of - Julius Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey, in 60 B.C. and that of Octavius, Antony, and Lepidus, 43 B. C. The former was never formally reeognized. It was broken by the defeat of Crassus in Mesopotamia and the Civil War soon after caused the death of Pompey, resulting in the succession of Julius Caesar as perpetual dictator. The triumvirate formed in 43 B.C„ though usually called the second, was in reality the first to receive official recognition. Under it the empire was divided, Lepidus receiving Italy, Octavius the West, and Antony the East.

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