AUGUSTUS, Caius Julius; (birth name Caesar Octavianus), first emperor of Rome, born Sept. 23, 63 b.c.; died at Nola, Aug. 19, 14 A. D. He was the son of Caius Octavius and Atia, a daughter of Julia, the youngest sister of Julius Caesar, by whom he was adopted as son and heir. Julius Caesar was the great uncle of Augustus.
After the assassination of Caesar, Augustus returned to Rome to claim Caesar's property, which Mark Antony yielded after some hesitation. In 43 he was chosen praetor and formed the first triumvirate with Antony and Lepidus, which resulted in the assassination of 300 senators and- 2,000 knights of the opposition party. He and